The surgical improvements and new technologies in the field of biomaterials make possible to reconstruct breasts affected by cancer with excellent results. The reconstruction doesn't hinder any cancer therapy nor conditions the disease progression, but it has been shown to produce great patient psychological benefits. The aim of the mammary reconstruction after mastectomy is to get the best symmetry between the reconstructed breast and the natural one, with the least possible damage to the patient in terms of scars and psychological distress. There are several techniques for post-mastectomy breast reconstruction that can be distinguished into two groups: using prosthetic materials (implants, tissue expanders, etc.) and using only autologous tissues (latissimus dorsi flap, transverse rectus abdominis muscolar flap, lipofilling, etc). The best reconstructive therapeutic strategy is chosen for each patient, also according to patient physical shape and age. The surgery is performed under local anesthesia, possibly with sedation, or general anesthesia, depending on the circumstances of each case.